Technical Risk Assessments using “Top Down” or “Bottom-Up” in accordance to International accepted techniques. HAZOP, SWIFT and FMECA and Risk Based Inspections to name a few. Applicable to large industries such as Power Generation, Manufacturing and Mining houses.
HAZOP study is a formal systematic procedure used to review the design and operation of a potentially hazardous process facility. It is used to identify deviations from normal safe operation, which could lead to hazards, environmental or safety/health concerns and infrastructure, and/or operability/maintenance problems. The HAZOP study also includes appropriate remedial measures.
FMECA is a technique used to identify the ways in which components or systems can fail to perform their design intent or function. This is the inability of the asset to perform the design intent or function and analyses the consequences of that functional failure.
SWIFT – The Structured What-If Technique (SWIFT) risk assessment technique is an international high-level and top-down hazard identification tool, which utilises a standardised methodology. It is a thorough, systematic and team oriented analytical technique.
Risk Based Inspection
Risk Based Inspection (RBI) is an optimal maintenance business process used to examine equipment such as pressure vessels, heat exchangers and piping in industrial plants. It examines the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and business risk of ‘active’ and ‘potential’ Damage Mechanisms (DMs) to assess and rank failure probability and consequence. This ranking is used to optimize inspection intervals based on site-acceptable risk levels and operating limits, while mitigating risks as appropriate. RBI analysis can be qualitative, quantitative or semi-quantitative in nature.
Pressure Equipment Regulation (PER) replaced the VuP (Vessels under Pressure regulation) in October 2009. Pressure Equipment is now classified as pressure equipment operating at a pressure ≥ 50kPa and includes piping and valves. Equipment classification is a general requirement and equipment has to be classified according to SANS 347. Instead of the 36 month pressure testing, as per the OHS Act. PER offers an option of implementing a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) program.
The economic benefits of applying risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for structures subject to fatigue are evaluated based on experiences from past industrial projects. To this end, the factors influencing the cost of inspection, repair and failure of structures are discussed and realistic values of these costs are presented. These are then applied to assess the expected costs from different inspection strategies, both risk-based strategies as well as inspection strategies with fixed inspection intervals for all potentially critical elements. By comparing these expected costs, the financial benefit of RBI is assessed.
RBI assists a company to select cost effective and appropriate maintenance and inspection tasks and techniques, to minimize efforts and cost, to shift from a reactive to a proactive maintenance regime, to produce an auditable system, to give an agreed “operating window”, and to implement a risk management tool.
The purposes of RBI include:
- To improve risk management results
- To provide a holistic, interdependent approach for managing risks
- To apply a strategy of doing what is needed for safeguarding integrity and improving reliability and availability of the asset by planning and executing those inspections that are needed
- To reduce inspections and shutdowns and provide longer run length without compromising safety or reliability
- To safeguard integrity
- To reduce the risk of failures
- To increase plant availability and reduce unplanned outages
- To provide a flexible technique able to continuously improve and adopt to changing risks
- To ensure inspection techniques and methods consider potential failure modes
- Accident / Incident Investigations
- Constructability & Maintainability Reviews for new projects and large
equipment maintenance replacement projects
- Critical Task Analysis
- Maintenance, Legal, Health & Safety and Environmental Assessmentsand / or Auditing
- Risk Assessments
- Safety & Health
- Technical Equipment
- Third-Party requirements
- Utilising internationally accepted techniques such as SWIFT (High Level), HAZOP (Process and Procedures), FMECA / RCM II / S.RCM (Maintenance Strategy), FTA, and RCA (Accident / Incident Investigation)
- Risk-Based Inspection Programmes to comply with statutory Pressure Equipment Regulations
- SIL and MHI studies